Both the EU and its Member States are individually responsible for ratifying the Paris Agreement. A strong preference has been expressed for the EU and its 28 Member States to simultaneously deposit their instruments of ratification to ensure that neither the EU nor its Member States commit to fulfilling obligations that belong exclusively to each other, and fears of disagreements over each Member State`s share of the EU-wide reduction target – as well as the UK`s vote to leave the EU-wide the EU could delay the Paris Pact.  However, the European Parliament approved the ratification of the Paris Agreement on 4 October 2016, and the EU deposited its instruments of ratification on 5 October 2016 with several EU Member States.  Under U.S. law, U.S. participation in an international agreement may be terminated by a president acting on executive authority or by an act of Congress, regardless of how the U.S. has acceded to the agreement. The Paris Agreement stipulates that a Party may not withdraw from the Agreement within the first three years of its entry into force. In addition, the agreement introduces a new mechanism to “facilitate implementation and promote compliance”. This “non-adversarial” committee of experts will try to help countries that are lagging behind in their commitments to get back on track. There are no penalties for non-compliance. Although climate change mitigation and adaptation require increased climate finance, adaptation has generally received less support and mobilized less private sector action.
 A 2014 OECD report found that in 2014, only 16% of global financing went to climate change adaptation.  The Paris Agreement called for a balance between climate finance and mitigation, and in particular highlighted the need to increase adaptation support for parties most vulnerable to the effects of climate change, including least developed countries and small island developing states. The agreement also reminds the parties of the importance of public subsidies, as adaptation measures receive less investment from the public sector.  John Kerry, as Secretary of State, announced that the United States would double its subsidy-based adjustment funding by 2020.  As in this thematic letter from C2ES, United States Participation in the Paris Agreement can be decided solely by the President, without seeking the advice and consent of the Senate, in part because it drafts an existing treaty, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. If Biden is president, he would have ample power to join him as an “executive deal.” Currently, 197 countries – every nation on earth, the last signatory being war-torn Syria – have adopted the Paris Agreement. Of these, 179 have solidified their climate proposals with formal approval – including the US for now. The only major emitting countries that have not yet officially joined the deal are Russia, Turkey and Iran. The 1. In June 2017, President Trump announced his intention to withdraw the United States from the agreement. In response, other Governments strongly reaffirmed their commitment to the agreement. U.S.
cities, states, and other nonstate actors have also reaffirmed their support for the agreement and pledged to step up their climate efforts. The United States officially began its withdrawal from the agreement on November 4, 2019; the revocation took effect on November 4, 2020. President-elect Biden has promised to join the Paris Agreement as soon as he takes office. The implementation of the agreement by all member countries will be evaluated every 5 years, the first evaluation will take place in 2023. The result will serve as a contribution to new Nationally Determined Contributions by Member States.  The assessment is not a contribution/achievement of individual countries, but a collective analysis of what has been achieved and what still needs to be done. The Paris Agreement is an agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that addresses the mitigation, adaptation and financing of greenhouse gas emissions and was signed in 2016. The wording of the agreement was negotiated by representatives of 196 States Parties at the 21st Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC at Le Bourget, near Paris, in France, and adopted by consensus on 12 December 2015.   By February 2020, the 196 members of the UNFCCC had signed the agreement and 189 had become parties.
 Of the seven countries that are not parties to the law, the only major emitters are Iran and Turkey. Article 28 of the Agreement allows parties to withdraw from the Agreement after sending a notice of withdrawal to the Depositary. The denunciation may take place no earlier than three years after the entry into force of the Agreement for the country. Payment shall be made one year after notification to the depositary. Alternatively, the agreement provides that a withdrawal from the UNFCCC, under which the Paris Agreement was adopted, would also remove the state from the Paris Agreement. .